This type of condition usually affects larger breeds of dogs, including German Shepherds, Alaskan Malamute, and Saint Bernards. While the disorder is rare in cats, it can still affect heavier-boned breeds such as Main coon and Persian. In both dogs and cats, it is usually a condition that is inherited and occurs when the ball-in-socket structure of the hip joint does not develop properly. The tissues and muscles surrounding the hip joint begin to stretch and eventually become arthritic.
This condition needs to be monitored closely, usually with the help of frequent X-rays and physical examinations. Treatment options can depend on the severity of the condition and the animal’s age, weight, and general health. Pain medications and surgery are common treatment options.
This condition is also referred to as a dislocated kneecap and is one of the most prevalent abnormalities having to do with the knee joint in dogs. Miniature breeds such as the Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, and Chihuahua are most susceptible to this particular condition.
Cats can also have a dislocated kneecap, especially the Abyssinian and Devon Rex breeds.
Patellar luxation is usually either inherited or it is caused by trauma. It can also be a congenital defect, meaning they are born with a dislocated kneecap.
X-rays and fluid samples taken from the joint are needed in order to properly diagnose this condition. Surgery is the most effective treatment option.
Bone fractures usually occur as a result of trauma. X-rays must be taken to determine the severity and location of the fracture. The three most common types of fractures include:
- Hairline – there are cracks in the middle of the bone
- Multi-piece – the bone is broken in several places
- Compound – serious fracture where the bone is exposed
When a dog or cat has sustained a bone fracture, it will need to be put under anesthesia and then the fracture gets immobilized by either surgical or non-surgical means. Most bone fractures will require surgery.
When the joint cartilage begins to deteriorate and it causes the joints to become chronically inflamed, it is known as osteoarthritis. Once thought to affect only large dogs, it can affect any breed but is more common in older dogs. Older cats can also suffer from this degenerative condition. Common symptoms of this condition in dogs include decreased levels of activity, lameness, and a stiff gait. Cats with this condition often exhibit abnormal behaviors such as not grooming themselves as much or no longer jumping up to their favorite spots.
While there is no cure for osteoarthritis, the condition can be managed with weight loss, exercise, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In some cases, different types of surgical procedures, such as joint replacement or removing cartilage fragments, may be beneficial.